It grows in Afghanistan, West Asia, Europe, North Africa and
Australia. In India it grows from Punjab and Rajasthan to
the Deccan Peninsula.
Morphology Description (Habit)
A prostrate, glabroscent, polymorph shrub or climber armed
with divaricate light yellow thorns, occurring in dry rocky
and stony soils. Branches terete and glabrous or pubescent.
Leaves are variable in texture, orbicular to elliptic, base
rounded and apex mucronate. Flowers are white, solitary,
axillary. Sepals are sub equal, petals are white, and its
anther filaments are purple and are longer than the petals.
The berry is ellipsoid, ovoid or obovoid and pericarp thin.
The seeds are 3-4 mm in diam., globose, smooth and brown.
The cortex and leaves contain stachydrine and
3-hydroxystachydrine. The root contains, glucobrassicin,
neoglucobrassicin and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin. The crude
extract of the flowerbuds contains 162 volatile constituents
of which isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, sulphides and their
oxidative products have been identified as the major
components1. The seeds and leaves contain
glucocapparin and glucocleomin. The root bark contains
stachydrine, rutic acid and a volatile substance with garlic
Liv.52, a Ayurvedic preparation is reported to protect
albino rats against toxic effects of beryllium compounds,
and mice against Semiliki Forest Virus (SFV) 2.
The plant is credited with anti-tubercular property. The
root bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic system of
medicine. The bark is bitter, diuretic and expectorant. It
is given in spleen, renal and hepatic complaints. The
bruised leaves are applied as a poultice in gout. An extract
of the plant is one of the constituents of the Ayurvedic
preparation `Liv.52' administered to treat preliminary cases
of acute viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver; and has
shown encouraging results against viral infection in man.
The plant extract is also a constituent of another drug `Geriforte'
useful in treating senile pruritis, itching and other
ailments associated with old age and anxiety neurosis.
- Schraudolf, Phytochemistry, 1989, 28, 259; Brevard et.
al., Flav Fraqr J, 1992, 7, 313.
- Mathur et. al., Curr Sci, 1986, 55, 899; Handa et.
al., Fitoterapia, 1986, 57, 347; Sama et. al., Indian J
med Res, 1976, 64, 738; Bhargava & Soni, Rajasthan med J,
1980, 19, 23; Gupta et. al., Probe, 1979-80, 19, 99;
Khandeparker & Kulkarni, Indian Drugs , 1980-81, 18, 346.