laxative. It is also given for piles; and as a remedy for
diarrhoea. The root bark is used as a
remedy in hypochondriasis, melancholia and palpitation of
the heart. Fresh leaf juice used as a laxative and febrifuge
is used in asthmatic complaints and jaundice. The chinese
used the leaves and young fruits to adulterate Opium. In
Bengal it is used for dysentery. In Concar, small and unripe
fruits are used for piles. The juice of bark is a remedy for
poverty of seminal fluid.
It is found in India, Burma, and Sri Lanka, often
planted in the vicinity of Shiva temples. It grows wild all
over the sub-Himalayan forests, central India and its west
coast and in dry hilly places ascending to 4,000 ft. high.
Morphology Description (Habit)
It is a medium to large sized deciduous, glabrous and armed
tree with axillary and 2.5 cm long spines. Leaves alternate,
3-5 foliate, leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, crenate,
acuminate, membranous and petiololed. Flowers in short
axillary panicles, large and scented. Calyx pubescent and
four lobed. Petals 4, white and gland dotted. Stamens many.
Ovary ovoid, cells 10-20, ovules many, fruit globose, grey
or yellowish, rind woody. Seeds many, oblong, compressed,
embedded in reddish yellow coloured sweet pulp.
|Aegelin, formerly identified as
sterol but clarified as a neutral alkaloid, rutacine,
g- sitosterol, aegelemine and aegeline were
identified from the leaves1. Marmin,
marmesin, umbelliferine, skimmianine were identified
from the bark and roots2. A major
constituent of the fruit is the mucilage and
marmelosin (0.5 %) a coumarin, in addition to the
minor constituents like reducing sugar, essential
oils, ascorbic acid and various minerals.
Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves have similar
effect as digoxin in amplitude and contractions of the
frog's heart. Alcoholic extract of the roots and fruits
showed hypoglycaemic activity in albino rats and fruit
extract has antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease
virus. Marmelosin has anthelmintic activity against
The roots are astringent, bitter and febrifuge. They are
useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, stomachalgia,
cardiopalmus, seminal weakness, vomiting, intermittent fever
and swellings. The leaves are useful as laxative, febrifuge
and expectorant, also in ophthalmia, deafness,
inflammations, catarrh, diabetes and asthmatic complaints.
The fruits are useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, stomachalgia,
and good for heart and brain.
- Chem Indust 50, 1632, 1955; Bull Calcutta School Trop
Med. 4, 167, 1958; Sci and Cult 33, 279, 1967; J Org. Chem
- Tetrahedron Lett. 5, 471, 1967; J Chem Soc, 222, 1959;
J Indian Chem Soc. 37, 334, 1960.
- Indian J Med Res 56, 327, 1968; Indian J Exptl Biol 6,
232, 1968; I J Pharmac 1,6, 1969.